What is the best mushroom seed?

Fungi, like other living organisms on the planet, reproduce to survive. Since fungi are multicellular, they multiply sexually and asexually.

A mushroom seed producer produces mushroom seeds from a spore or piece of the mushroom itself in the laboratory. There are several species of edible and medicinal mushrooms in the world, of which about 20 species are produced and marketed in Iran by seed producers.

Button mushroom seed and oyster mushroom seed have the largest volume of seed production in Iran. Most producers of button mushroom compost produce the seeds they need, but there are several large producers of button mushroom seeds in Iran. .

Characteristics of quality seeds

It is better for seed consumers to get the seeds they need from licensed producers who are approved by the Jihad of Agriculture and Engineering System so that they do not suffer damage due to the seeds.

The best mushroom seed is the one that smells like mushrooms. The wheat grains must be completely colonized by the fungus and completely whitened.

The colored drops, which are signs of fungal enzymes, are not an obstacle for the seed, but the powdery spots indicate the attack of competing molds in the seed, which is a sign of the seed's health.

It is better to get your mushroom seeds from a company whose seeds are generation 1, which is the best type of mushroom seeds in the world.

Mushroom seeds on cereal grains

Like all plants, there are seeds for mushroom propagation. Mushroom seed or mushroom spawn is actually a thread or mycelium grown on a cereal grain, which is produced in a complex process in mushroom seed production laboratories in Iran and other countries of the world and mixed with the growing medium. It is supplied to mushroom production units.



In 1930, Sinden invented mushroom seed (mushroom seed), which is widely used today, for the first time and created a huge revolution in the technique of mushroom seeding.

Mushroom seed bed

Cereal seeds are a very suitable carrier. The skin is firm, and under the skin, there is protein and starchy material. In addition, it can absorb a lot of water through the gills. Since the fungus cannot use starch; Therefore, the seed remains resistant and stable, and it is possible to store seed mushroom seeds for a long time.

Mushroom seed production on different substrates

Basically, the methods of preparing mushroom (mushroom seeds) today are cultivation on cereal grains or liquid cultivation; Of course, in the 1960s, perlite was used as an inactive carrier material, which had good results in the case of bacteria, but it could not be a suitable alternative to grain seeds for the cultivation and preservation of mushroom seeds.

 The best mushroom seeds in Iran and the world

The best mushroom seeds in the world are produced and supplied by several companies:

Amisel Company of America

Sylvan company has active representatives in Holland, Germany, France, Australia, Ireland and even Turkey

Ital Span Co

In Iran, both Silvan and Ital Span seeds are regularly imported.

Lambert Canada

In the world, button mushroom seeds are completely hybridized and eugenic, so that the breeds of Agaricus bisporus that have global production, such as the A15 variety, are completely compatible with the mushroom industry.

In Europe and America, hybrid seeds are produced from positive genetic manipulations and sold to the world market. However, in Iran, edible mushroom seed producers do not have access to advanced laboratory facilities, and on the other hand, they do not know genetic modification methods.

In any case, with the development of the mushroom seed industry, it is hoped that in the near future we will also become aware of this science in Iran.

Currently, several major button mushroom and oyster mushroom seed producers in Iran are selling mushroom seeds to the market.

The best Iranian mushroom seeds belong to companies that have a license and obtain their seed base from foreign companies. Due to the high price of the dollar and the existence of heavy sanctions against Iran, there are only a handful of companies that source their seed base. They supply from Europe, and for this reason, the quality of their seeds is higher than others.

Ariana company has the honor of getting its mother base from Sylvan company and we do our best to provide high quality seeds to our dear consumers.



Liquid mushroom seeds

Although liquid cultivation requires less space and the working method is easier, it requires expensive equipment and unfortunately it has not been localized in Iran yet, and its transfer from the seed unit to the composting unit on a large scale has the possibility of contamination; for these reasons, it is still It has not reached the stage of mass production. However, several mushroom seed production units use liquid culture in part of the mushroom seed production process.

Good seeds guarantee good mushrooms

This question is asked by many producers, visitors and even consumers.

Good mushrooms are obtained from good and quality compost, good seeds, good cover soil and by a good gardener. With this sentence, you understand that several factors are effective for having a good mushroom.

If the seed is very high quality, first generation and without temperature stress (i.e. it has not been cold and heated several times), it will cover the defects of the compost to a great extent. The quality of your mushrooms is also good.

A professional gardener can correct compost defects to a great extent and even get a good load from ordinary compost.

The fact that you sometimes hear that a certain salon owner managed to get 38% of the load or someone says that I got 40% of the load from my salon depends on all these factors.

A professional grower knows when to add poison-water to the soil or when to add calcium hypochlorite to improve the quality of mushrooms.

In any case, since the mushroom production process is very complex and scientific, if you are a respected producer, you can get help from Ariana's consultants to have good and white mushrooms .


Types of seed beds in the world

In Europe, in some mushrooms, syringes containing 10 cc of liquid seeds can be sold and supplied, but this technology has not yet been achieved in Iran.

In some countries such as China and Korea, cereal grains as food are of special importance in nutrition; for this reason, sawdust or other agricultural wastes are used as carrier material in mushroom seeds, but currently in Iran and In many European countries, cereal grains are used to prepare mushroom seeds.

In Iran, wheat is used as a substrate for seed cultivation, while in Europe, mushroom seeds are grown on rye grain. However, barley, millet, corn, and even legumes can carry mushroom spores.

Preparation of mushroom seeds

Characteristics of mushroom seed production laboratory

The main reason for the failure of mushroom seed growers is not spending enough time to build a sterile laboratory. It does not take much time and energy, but with a comprehensive plan in hand, such a unit can be easily built.

The first step is to determine the annual production capacity of the laboratory. Based on the daily production capacity, you can determine the area of ​​land you need. It is better for the seed laboratory building to be a large one. Incubation rooms (seed storage) should be built in such a way that the minimum Have a temperature exchange with the outside environment. The seed incubation room does not have a window and it is better to be made of stone, ceramic or sandwich panel.


Positive air pressure prevails in the seed storage rooms, which reduces the level of environmental pollution.

Seed storage shelves are different depending on the conditions and taste of the seed producer.

 Mushroom filaments are indifferent to light.

It is better to keep the humidity of the seed storage room as low as possible, because increasing the humidity of the environment causes the attack of competing molds and damages the unit.

In mushroom seed production, after building the laboratory, it is time to equip its equipment.

Equipment needed in the mushroom seed production laboratory

Autoclave: A device similar to home pressure cookers, but much larger, which performs sterilization under pressure and steam. Autoclaves are either electric or gas. In laboratories that have a steam boiler, the autoclave is connected to the boiler.

Laminar Air Flow : It is a device similar to a hood in homes that keeps the environment under the laminar clean with air suction.

Seed storage shelf : usually the shelves are made of metal that is painted and are produced in different shapes and sizes in seed production units.

Cooking pot: Similar to what is used in nazuri for cooking rice, mushroom seeds are also used for cooking wheat.

Alcohol lamp, agar knife, plate, test tube, alcohol, litmus paper, cotton and polyca tube are other tools used in the seed laboratory.

Materials needed to produce mushroom seeds

Wheat (which is better to be dry), calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate (which is added to wheat to prevent adhesion between wheats and to keep the pH of the environment neutral), culture medium, distilled water, poly bags Heat-resistant propylene, which is mostly used in 20x50 size.

Types of mushroom cultivation medium:

  1. A) Potato culture medium:which is actually potato, dextrose sugar and yeast mixed in the following ratio.

Filtered extract of 300 grams of the ground slope in one liter of water that has been boiled for one hour.

10 grams of dextrose sugar.

2 grams of yeast (optional).

20 grams of agar-agar.

  1. b) seed-peptine - malt culture medium:

20 grams of honey color malt.

5 grams of rye seed powder.

5 grams of peptin or neopeptin.

2 grams of yeast (optional).

20 grams of agar-agar

  1. c) malt extract:

20 grams of honey color malt.

2 grams of yeast.

20 grams of agar-agar.

In preparing the culture medium, it is necessary to observe the following points:

The pH of the culture medium should be almost neutral. If the pH of the medium is too low, the culture medium will be diluted and cannot be used. The pH will be reduced to 0.4% after autoclaving. If the pH is higher than 5.5 7, most fungi cannot grow.


Disinfection of the culture environment

 It is better after mixing the culture medium with agar in the Erlenmeyer flask, cover the lid of the Erlenmeyer flask with cotton and sterilize it in the autoclave for 30 minutes. The volume of the culture medium inside the Erlenmeyer flask should not be more than 2/3 of the total volume of the container.

The method of sterilizing the culture medium

Pour the prepared culture medium into an Erlenmeyer flask and sterilize it at a temperature of 121°C and a pressure of 1.2 atmospheres for 25 minutes. If the temperature is higher than 121°C, the starch in the culture medium will be broken. As a result, the movement of the mushroom thread on such an environment is slow and irregular.

The transfer method from Erlen to plate

The sterile culture medium is transferred to the plate under laminar air flow. Plastic and glass plates with lids are sold in the laboratory equipment market. Plastic plates are sterile and disposable, but glass plates are made of Pyrex is reusable and non-sterile. Each mushroom seed production unit uses glass or plastic plates depending on its conditions.

Since there is solid agar in all culture mediums, it turns from liquid to solid after a few hours at room temperature.

Agar is a white powder that is produced by domestic companies and imported from abroad. Agar is made from a type of seaweed that has no nutritional value and only causes liquids to harden.

The method of transferring the thread to the plate

A mushroom seed producer usually buys the mother strain from foreign collectors or obtains it from tissue culture of Iranian native mushrooms. Anyway, the lab technician transfers a piece of it to the center of the plate containing the culture medium. After the work is completed, the name and date are written on the inoculated plates and they are wrapped with parafilm to reduce the risk of secondary contamination as much as possible. It usually takes 7 to 20 days, depending on the type of mushroom, for the mushroom to sprout. Fill an 8 cm plate completely.

It is better to keep the plates in an incubator with a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius.

It should be mentioned that just as different mushrooms have different shapes, the movement of their threads on the plate is also different.

In Iran, wheat is used to produce mushroom seeds. It is better to have dry, uniform and healthy wheat.


Method of cooking wheat

Wheat is poured into the cooking pot and after washing with water, the pot is exposed to heat until the wheat is cooked.

The amount of wheat cooking should be such that it can be crushed with a gentle pressure between the thumb and thumb, but it should not burst during cooking.

It takes a lot of skill for a mushroom seed producer to know how to cook wheat so that it is neither raw nor mashed.

Anyway, cooked wheat is mixed well with calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate and then it is poured into heat-resistant polypropylene bags.

It is 20 x 50 cm and because it is thin and may tear in the autoclave, it is better to double layer it before pouring the wheat.

The filled bags are piped and cotton is placed on them.


such a bag is ready to be autoclaved. It is better to put 2/3 of the capacity of the autoclave in a bag so that the sterilization can be done properly.

Note: The polyca tube used in the production of mushroom seeds is number 3 or 4, which is completely cut to 1.5 to 2 cm.

The purpose of putting cotton on mushroom seed bags is several things:

Assisting in the sterilization of wheat in an autoclave

Preventing contamination from outside into the bag

Creating ventilation for the growth of the thread inside the seed bag

Currently, filter bags similar to European types are also produced in Iran. These bags are large and usually hold 4 kg of wheat. Do not get infected.

After germination, the mushroom seed bags are transferred to the incubation room and stay there for 7 to 18 days (depending on the type of mushroom).

Incubation room specifications

A room without windows, with positive air pressure and a temperature of 20 to 23 degrees Celsius. It is better to open the incubation room to a corridor so that the pollution of the outside space does not easily enter this room.

If the sterilization of wheat is not carried out accurately or if hygiene principles are not observed during germination, the mushroom seed will be infected with all kinds of molds or bacteria during incubation.


Types of mushroom seed contamination

If the mushroom seed has a strong sour smell and the mushroom thread does not move properly on the wheat grains, it is an indication of the attack of bacteria on the mushroom seed; Usually, if the temperature, pressure or autoclave time is not suitable, bacteria attack the seed.

If a green, brown, black or pink powder spot is observed on the mushroom seed, it indicates the attack of competing molds on the mushroom seed, which usually enters the seed bags from the polluted air in the environment or is transferred to the seed from the contaminated stock. to be

It is customary to use an ultraviolet lamp in the mushroom seed production laboratory. The ultraviolet ray is a blue light that disinfects all the microscopic organisms in the environment. The ultraviolet lamp is used in a closed room, but care must be taken that the laboratory technician is not present when it is being used, because it causes irritation and serious damage to the eyes and skin and causes skin cancer in the long run. In the sunlight There is also the same radiation that causes both disinfection and skin problems.

Mushroom seed incubation

Anyway, the inoculated mushroom seed is kept in the incubation room until the yellow wheat grains are covered with the mushroom thread and the thread covers all the wheat grains. Button mushroom seeds are shaken on the 7th and 12th days after inoculation. Ripe button mushroom seeds usually stay in the incubation room for 16 to 18 days. Such a seed is completely white in color, seeds and gives the smell of button mushroom.

Oyster mushroom seeds are usually ready to be sent and marketed 7 to 10 days after inoculation. Ripe oyster mushroom seeds are completely white and hard, so that when you touch the bag with your hand, it sounds like an empty drum.

The seeds of any type of mushroom smell of that mushroom, which is one of the ways to identify healthy seeds.

Genetic mutation of mushroom seeds

A mushroom seed producer must be vigilant so that the strain he works with does not undergo genetic corruption or mutation. The most important complication of such phenomena is the appearance of sterile mycelium or the reduction of the appearance of the number of pin heads and the malformation of the cap shape. And the stem is in the reproductive stage, which causes irreparable loss in mass cultivation.

One of the causes of such complications is changing the environmental conditions, reducing the quality of the culture medium, frequent passages of the mother strain and excessive use of formalin in the mushroom seed production unit.

Oyster mushroom seeds

The oyster mushroom seed, which is actually the mycelium grown on the wheat grain, is produced in the seed production laboratory within 7 to 10 days and sold to the market. There are different types of oyster mushroom and the fruit of the oyster mushroom is white, gray, There are brown, pink and golden ones. ( Mussel mushroom seed article )

 White oyster mushroom seeds are cheaper than other seeds in terms of price, and King Oyster mushroom or Pleurotus eryngii has the highest seed rate among oyster mushroom types.

Edible mushroom seeds

 There are 17 types of edible mushrooms in the world, among which some of them are produced and supplied in Iran by mushroom seed producers. A number of edible mushroom seeds are produced in Ariana's production complex. The most produced by Ariana is button mushroom seed, followed by oyster mushroom seed and finally, depending on the order of our dear customers, Shi Ta Ke, Arinji and Ganoderma is produced and supplied. The method of mushroom seed production throughout Iran is on sterile wheat grain, which is ready to be sent after being inoculated with mushroom filaments and kept in incubation rooms. ( Edible mushroom nutritional value article )

Where to buy mushroom seeds ?

The mushroom cradle of Iran is Karaj, and most mushroom seed producers operate in this province and two neighboring provinces (Tehran and Qazvin). Of course, there are also some mushroom seed producers in some cities such as Ahvaz, Mashhad, and Mazandaran. Better than seeds. Buy mushrooms from the original producer. You can find the best producer in the nearest city of your residence with a simple search on the Internet. Buy mushroom seeds from those you are sure of, otherwise, get a guarantee for the quality of the seeds. Buy button mushroom seeds

Ganoderma mushroom seeds

Ganoderma lucidum is a non-edible mushroom, a medicine with unique properties. This mushroom has been grown and consumed in Southeast Asia for many years. Fortunately, in Iran, this mushroom is also seen as a vehicle in the wars in the north of the country. Ganoderma mushroom and ready compost of this mushroom are available to producers and those interested in this art ( Ganoderma mushroom seed production method, Ganoderma mushroom parameters , Ganoderma lucidum mushroom cultivation method )



Contact information for Ariana mushroom seeds

Ariana mushroom soil unit address:Karaj, Mohammad Shahr, Shams Street, first door on the right

Ariana mushroom seed unit address:Ariana Mushroom Seed Unit, Hesar Tahmasab, Safadasht, Tehran

 02634990354-Phoneتلفن: :02634990358

02165949017  - 02165949117

Fax : 02636305453

 09121780442  -  Mobileموبایل: :09126888295